Is there any standard system of romanization for the Thai alphabet (including consonants, vowels, tones, numbers, and their combinations), or is any such romanization system quite arbitrary? Can someone please apply the complete list? Also, are the names of (eg. chicken for the first consonant) etc... given next to the sound of each letter combination pretty standard as part of the way the Thai alphabet is taught? Thank you for your explanation, and sorry if I'm just a day zero beginner.
The official system of Romanization of the Thai languiage is Royal Thai General System of Transcription (RTGS). All road signs, landmarks, and so on are to be transcribed according to RTGS.
RTGS has certain pro's, likewise it uses a plain Latin alphabet, no tone marks, no vowel length marks, etc. And these are also con's (e.g. you can't read it properly when you need).
There are plenty of unofficial systems. For example, one of the prominent resources for Thai language learners, Thai-Language.com, has several systems of Romanization:
Note as you see, I prefer IPA over RTGS as it provides with complete information over the tones, vowel lengths, and so on.
Yet another note: Paiboon is a publishing agency that has published a famous book for Thai language learners, so it takes its own place within the system.
A personal note: ISO 11940 is a horrible thing, Google Translate uses it, so stay way from it. :-)
As for the list of consonants and the meanings of the words, the Wikipedia article seems to be a good source: