I'm not sure I understood what you want to know: Whether there are languages with more than six cases, or languages where ablative is used for more than "by, by whom, with, from, in, on"?
There definitely are languages with a richer case system, usually agglutinative languages. E.g. Finnish has 15 cases, Hungarian about 18 (for Hungarian it's a little harder to decide what counts as a case and what is merely a postposition that has been attached to the word over time; some linguists argue there are only 5 cases, some even talk about 40).
If it's about what ablative can be used for, things are not that clear, as the prepositions you mentioned often are vague in meaning.
For those languages that do have ablative in the first place, the basic semantics should obviously the same when choosing the same term; what exactly ablative is used for will also heavily depend on what other cases the language offers. For example in Finnish, which has ablative too, the partitive case is used for a large range of meanings where Latin would rather use ablative (or something different).
But the basic meaning, namely ablative expressing something like movement away from something, isn't that much different from the use of ablative in Latin or in other languages that have ablative case as well, otherwise you wouldn't call the case like this.