What do you call a pair of words which specifically are either written our sounded out either the same or very similarly across two different languages and have different meanings (perhaps even different technologies) in such languages?
Generally (independently of different languages) you could use those terms:
- A word with the same phonetic form (i.e. with the same pronounciation) and a different, completely unrelated meaning is called a homophone - such as bank (financial isntitute) and bank (river bank).
- If they are spelled the same, they are called homographs - for example bow (weapon) and bow (to bend), which are spelled the same, but are different in meaning and in this example also in pronounciation.
- Most of such pairs are both homphones and homographs, i.e. both pronounced and spelled the same - the degree of overlap depends on the writhing system and orthography.
Sometimes, such pairs which have both the same phonetic and the same graphemic form are called homonyms, but often this term used synonymously to "homophones".
Linguists usually prefer to speak of homonyms or homophones, as orthography is not really investing to linguistics in the more narrow sense.
I personally don't know about a special term for homophones or homographs across different languages as opposed to homonyms within one language, possibly there just is no offical terminological distinction for that.
Colloquially, a word that looks or sounds the same in a different language but has a completely different meaning is called a false friend (this was decided to be the most suitable answer in this related question), but this is not really a scientific term.
Additional information you may find helpful within this field of terminology:
- If two words are etymologically unrelated, but have a similar form and meaning, they are called false cognates, but this is only for related meanings.
- If two words have the same form and different, but clearly related meanings, they are called polysemes, e.g. parliament (institution) and parliament (building).