I am working through Heim and Kratzer textbook 'Semantics in generative grammar' and there is a question in it that keeps puzzling me (pp.220);

they give an example of a sentence which is supposed to demonstrate that we should allow quantifiers to adjoin a verb phrase even when flexible types are available (even when we are allowed to type shift the interpretation of quantifiers)

Their sample sentence is the following:

Al did not return every clock to its owner.

The idea is that 'every clock' should be raised to a node which is high enough to dominate the pronoun 'its' and its own trace, but it is lower than 'not' ('every clock' has the narrower scope than 'not' according to one reading), hence it should adjoin the verb phrase.

They state in a comment that the similar argument can be made in case of sentences which involve two quantifiers in a VP, e.g.

Al gave something to everybody.

I am not sure I understand why this would be the case. The only thing that seems to matter in this other case is the order of quantifiers and if that is the case - why would not we be allowed to do raise one quantifier to the IP node and then create another IP node above it and adjoin the second quantifier to it?

[I am sorry if this was confusing - I am really new to this website and not sure how to include phrase structure tree into my questions]

  • Since (for whatever reason) LaTeX support is unfortulately not available on linguistics SE - speaking about which, allow me to advertise for voting on this feature request, which would easily solve the problem - , the easiest way to include trees is to draw them in an external editor (like LaTeX or whatever software you prefer), or take a screenshot/photo of the book, and inlcude it as a picture in your post.
    – lemontree
    Jul 22 '16 at 12:00
  • Alternatively, you can try to make use of indentation within code blocks to indicate a hierarchy, like here, although this is of course not very well suited for more complex trees with movement etc.
    – lemontree
    Jul 22 '16 at 12:00

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