I would like to know, besides Arabic itself, how many other separate languages (not including dialects) share the same letters with Arabic? I would like to have a complete list of all such languages (as I can seem to choose some of these from my keyboard's language settings, but I guess the list I have would be incomplete).
I am curious as to how these would work: I guess all of them would have no short vowels transcribed (with only long vowels appearing), feature glottal stops, etc. So, they should sound and be written similarly, despite featuring different vocabularies? What about the grammar they share, would it be similar (eg. Verb-Subject-Object structures)?
Do these languages in question have close to zero word overlap? Do they have any overlap at all with Arabic, and if so, what percentage would each of these have in common? If Arabic is the "Latin" of these separate languages (and this claim may also be false, sorry for my ignorance), then what percentage of words are borrowed from Arabic (as "loan words"?)?
I am interested in these "language demographics".
Thank you for your help.
EDIT: I am asking how many contemporary languages use the Arabic-script (with any of a small number of variations) as an official (or pseudo-official) writing system, and what is the list.