I am looking for dates when the /θ/ phoneme (which once written ð and þ in English, and now by the th grapheme) inherited from Proto-Germanic died out in continental Germanic languages.

In other words, when was the sound shift from /θ to /d/ was completed on the European mainland, so not including Britain and Iceland?

EDIT: BTW, I am interested in dates for each of the major Germanic languages.

  • Germanic people settled the British Islands and Iceland in the 5th and 9th centuries AD, respectively - and both English and Icelandic retained /θ/, so it must have started after the 9th century. But I have no idea of when it finished - other than Luther's translation of the Bible is already exempt of it. Commented Nov 14, 2016 at 13:35

1 Answer 1


Swedish seems to be the last holdout, as attested in the Gustav Vasa Bible published 1540-1.

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