Are there any theories out there that use X-bar theory but deny movement (like Dependency Syntax can)?

  • 3
    "Use X-bar theory" is pretty vague. You mean does the "bar" notation ever turn up? GPSG, which denies movement, has bar-level as a feature of some categories.
    – Greg Lee
    Nov 25, 2016 at 12:42
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    Same for LFG. On the configurational extreme of the configurationality scale in LFG (e.g. in English), all phrases have bar levels. Nov 30, 2016 at 4:43

2 Answers 2


You might want to have a look at LFG, they use X' Theory extended with an additional "lexocentric" category S to accommodate nonconfigurational phrase structures.


To my mind, the canonical "generative but non-derivational" work is the stuff that Michael Brody did.

Have a look at his book Lexico-Logical Form, which is a great and detailed exploration of an alternative approach to "minimalism", and after that find his work on "Mirror Syntax" (I think it appeared in Linguistic Inquiry circa 2000).

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