Would there be a theoretical way to distinguish between two related languages which diverged a long time ago, like tens of thousands years, and two totally unrelated languages, say, created independently?
I must say that I realize this question is still probably a big topic in research but I'm curious if there's any possible answers or else.
To be more specific, as lemontree suggested, my question should be interpreted as "Up to how many thousands of years is reconstruction still possible?" (cited from lemontree's comment) or "Are there any features that are very persistent throughout language change and could give sound clues to relatedness?".