Some examples of nonfinite adverbial clauses:
Susan left me [without having said goodbye]
[Being a trained boxer] Cathy always forces Mark to his knees with ease
[Green with envy] John asked the donkey for a carrot
and with regards to theta roles:
[Bound in leather] the book we gave him as a present was appreciated a lot by our grandpa
[Bound in leather] grandpa really liked the book we gave him as a present
It seems to be true for me that nonfinite adverbial adjunct clauses always adopt their (silent) syntactical subject (vs. theta role!) from the verb that they are modifying.* Please correct me if I got that wrong!!
If my statement turns out to be right, I wonder if syntax theory assumes a PRO element in the subject position of the adjunct clause.
Susani left mej [without PROi/*j having said goodbye]
Since such a PRO element couldn´t possibly be correferential with anything other than the modified verb´s subject, speaking of a control relation between the subject of a verb and its adverbial clause would appear somewhat odd to me.
What do you think?
*English is not my mother tongue, so I´m not shure whether the expletive pronoun may be an exception to this. But actually I tend to believe that expressions like the following, where the adjunct relates to the main verb´s object, are not possible (though they might be acceptable?):
?[Being an expert on syntactical analysis] it seems to me that he has some difficulties in building well-formed relative clauses.