Unlike most Indo-European languages Turkish for example groups some words for taste under one word e.g. acı. Are there other languages lacking words for example sour, bitter, sweet, salty, hot/sharp etc? Are there languages that lack taste terminology or where taste is restricted to "tasty" / "not tasty"?
Logoori has two taste words, -rur-u and -nʊr-u. The former covers hot (spicy), bitter, sour and generally anything negative (it also means "fierce" when applied to animates), and the latter is "sweet". Phrases can be constructed to convey whatever you'd like to say such as "salty, meaty, mushroomy, vegetal".
I am not sure how did you get that idea. Lets examine your examples:
- sour: ekşi
- bitter: acımsı/acımtrak
- salty: tuzlu
Although acı is used for hot, it is also a general name for lots of tastes. If your culture is not enough specialized in food culture to categorize them, it is your problem, not the Turkish language.
Another thing is that, same as the colours, different cultures have different differentiation for tastes.