I have a theory about that -- it is not generally accepted. Consonants as well as vowels can occur either stressed or unstressed (this is allowed in SPE features). Phonemic stress tells you where phonemic syllables are. I notice that you don't include stress among your "types of phonemes", but of course stress may be phonemic.
A syllable consists of a longest sequence of stressed nonsyllabics followed by a syllabic, followed by a longest sequence of unstressed nonsyllabics. So if you know the stress and syllabicity of all segments, you can count the syllables and tell where each syllable begins and ends.
Marking stress with a tic preceding the stressed segment, your example is /'B 'R 'OW 'K AH N/. The stress of consonants works something like other features; for instance here there is the possibility of regressive assimilation, where the stressed /'K/ assimilates in stress to the following unstressed vowel. Then we get phonetic ['b'r'owkahn]. Unstressed (i.e. not syllable onset) [k] is subject in some dialects to lenition: ['b'r'owxahn], or, marking syllable boundaries with a dot and omitting predictable stress, we go from /.B R OW . K AH N./ to [.br'owx.ahn.].
A more intuitive term for the stressed/unstressed distinction might be fortis/lenis.