Did Saussure ever consider intonation/melody as part of parole and/or langue? I cannot find any indication of prosody in the "Course in General Linguistics", so maybe Saussure was concerned more with traditional segments and less about tones, etc.

Do you have any insight on how he would've understand prosody, as contributing to both parole and langue or ...?

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I'd guess Saussure would count lexical tone as paradigmatic and intonation as syntagmatic (comparing his remarks about syllable structure). I think that would make both part of langue, but personally, I have always found the langue/parole distinction difficult to understand.

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