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For practical reasons, it is obvious to assume there is chart giving an overview which phrases can be assigned to which functions in a sentence.

For instance, one sentence function is called an adverbial (a confusing term, adjunct should be preferred) and three phrases, namely adverb phrase, prepositional phrase and noun phrase can be assigned to it.

If there is one, then I am not successful in finding it, I need for instance a term for this kind of chart, just like there is a name for multiplication table

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    What you are asking for is a grammar of English in tabular form. Unfortunately, there are dozens and dozens of grammars of English, using different structures and often different theoretical approaches. You would need to specify at least which particjular grammar of English you wanted a chart for.
    – Colin Fine
    Feb 21 '17 at 0:36
  • Anyone, no matter within which grammatical framework Feb 21 '17 at 0:44
  • "Adverbial" is not an acceptable functional term; in fact I'd avoid the term "adverbial" altogether, (see my answer to your previous question). The kinds of phrase that you cite are labelled "modifier".
    – BillJ
    Feb 21 '17 at 11:52
  • I guess I got you wrong on this, I thought adverbial was a function and some phrases can be used as it....Not sure how to correct it without risking to make it worse Feb 21 '17 at 12:09
  • I see the confusion. Yes, "adverbial" is a function, but the term is best avoided because of the potential confusion that it can cause, as I explained in my earlier answer. Much better is the widely-accepted term "adjunct" , a general term covering all the items occurring as modifiers in clause structure and related supplements.
    – BillJ
    Feb 21 '17 at 12:38

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