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There are three parts of speeches attributed to "down" in the dictionary: adjective, adverb and verb.

I understand , that at the bar is a sub phrase and a prepositional phrase. I don't know the rules of how each type of phrase is allowed to be built and I don't know where to look those rules up. Maybe a prepositional phrase can follow both an adverb and an adjective or maybe only one of them. Maybe some phrases are ambient and can be both types , but I am just guessing.

The whole sentence, wherein I found the phrase is:

Plenty of seats down at the bar

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    "down" can also be a preposition: "the kids ran down the street", "the camera fell down the hill" – lemontree Mar 10 '17 at 22:20
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    That's interesting, would "from down the hill" be a prepositional phrase which has another prepositional phrase for a sub phrase? – Abdul Al Hazred Mar 11 '17 at 10:06
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    @AbdulAlHazred Yes, "Down at the bar" is a preposition phrase headed by the prep "down" which has the further PP "at the bar" as its complement. The larger PP is either a modifier of the NP "seats", or a locative adjunct depending on its function in the sentence. – BillJ Mar 11 '17 at 11:58

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