I recently came across a verse from RigVeda

यदक्रन्दः परथमं जायमान उद्यन समुद्रादुत वा पुरीषात | 
शयेनस्य पक्षा हरिणस्य बाहू उपस्तुत्यं महि जातं ते अर्वन || 

Now, I can understand उद्यन समुद्रादुत (in other versions, its उदयन्त समुद्रादुत) as meaning 'arisen from the sea' but I can't make sense of the ending दुत.

  1. What does दुत mean ?
  2. Does it have any relationship with दूत (messenger) ?
  • ok.. cross-posting it there.. Apr 16 '17 at 12:23

Before understanding the mantra, we need to break it down into individual words. It is not an easy task to understand the words used in a vedic mantra even after breaking it down into words. If my memory serves me right, the separate words in the first mantra are:

यदक्रन्दः प्रथमम् जायमानः उद्यन् समुद्रात् उत वा पुरीषात्

Note that there's special sandhi happening between the words उद्यन् and समुद्रात् Through the application of a few Panini rules, the augment त् appears at the beginning of समुद्रात् There are no two version of the mantra. When sandhi is performed (and it always is while chanting the mantra), the additional त् is heard. Publishers of the text may sometimes skip the sandhi, causing one to incorrectly presume that there are two versions of the text.

I'm doubtful whether the first word is a compound or should be be shown as

यत् अक्रन्दः

Only a commentary on the mantra can resolve this ambiguity.

The word उत is an indeclinable (also called अव्ययम् in sanskrit). It is used in many meanings, one being in the sense of raising a question. Hence there's no possibility of the word दूत appearing in the mantra. There's some kind of sandhi happening at समुद्रात् उत- the trailing त् at the end of a word is replaced with a द् This must've caused the confusion.

From Apte's dictionary:


उत ind. 1 A particle expressing (a) doubt, uncer- tainty, guess (or); तत्किमयमातपदोषः स्यादुत यथा मे मनसि वर्तते Ś.3; स्थाणुरयमुत पुरुषः G. M. वीरो रसः किमयमित्युत दर्प एषः Veeracharitam. (b) alternative; usually a correla- tive of किं (whether, or); किमिदं गुरुभिरुपदिष्टमुत धर्मशास्त्रेषु पठितमुत मोक्षप्राप्तियुक्तिरियम् K.155; किं येन सृजसि व्यक्तमुत येन बिभर्षि तत् Ku.6.23; the place of उत is also taken by आहो or आहोस्वित्; sometimes आहो, आहोस्वित् or स्वित् are joined to उत. (c) association, connection, (having a cumulative force, 'and', 'also'); उत बलवानुताबलः; (d) interrogation; उत दण्डः पतिष्यति; (e) deliberation; (f) intensity; (g) wishing (especially at the beginning of a sentence followed by a potential 'would that'); (h) some- times used as an expletive; (i) oft. used for the sake of emphasis especially at the end of a line after इति or a verb; तदा विद्याद्विवृद्धं सत्त्वमित्युत Bg.14.11; धर्मे नष्टे कुलं कृत्स्नमधर्मो$भिभवत्युत 1.4. -2 With a preceding प्रति = on the contrary, on the other hand; but; सामवादाः सकोपस्य तस्य प्रत्युत दीपकाः Śi.2.55; न केवलं ध्रियते प्रत्युत पर्युपास्यमानस्तिष्ठति Nāg.5. -3 With a preceding किं = how much more or how much less; see किम्. उत, -उत Either-or; एकमेव वरं पुंसामुत राज्यमुताश्रमः G. M. उत वा or else, and; वा-उतवा, उताहोवा पि-वा either-or; -आहो, -आहोस्वित् Used for the sake of emphasis; उताहो हत- वीर्यास्ते बभूवुः पृथिवीक्षितः Rām.7.31.4. शालिहोत्रः किं नु स्याद् उताहोस्विद् राजा नलः.

  • Thanks a lot. Can you please mention the sandhi rule by which समुद्रात् उत is becoming समुद्रादुत, or an example for it ? I've tried to find several versions of this mantra, but I never get समुद्रात् उत in any of them. If possible, please provide a reference for the same. Apr 16 '17 at 7:44
  • Sure the rule is झलां जशोऽन्ते (Panini sutra no. 8-2-39) - The letter झल् at the end of a word is replaced by a जश् The letter त् belongs to the झल् group and the corresponding जश् letter for it would be द् This rule is applied without exception in all places. Some examples ककुभ् अस्ति => ककुप् अस्ति, जलमुच् आस्ते => जलमुज् आस्ते, ग्रामात् बहिः गच्छति => ग्रामाद् बहिः गच्छति
    – linuxfan
    Apr 16 '17 at 13:52
  • Awesome.. thanks a lot :) I found some good examples for it here too : tinyurl.com/lmzgxgz Apr 16 '17 at 14:01
  • You can look through the posts on avg-sanskrit.org for examples as well.
    – linuxfan
    Apr 16 '17 at 16:56
  • Thanks.. Its a little off-topic, but can you help me locate एतम् in any online dictionary. I know it means "this", but for some reason, I can't find it in any online dictionary. Have tried Apte's dictionary above, and also here : andhrabharati.com/dictionary/sanskrit/index.php Apr 16 '17 at 18:02

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