I once posted an answer on English Language & Usage about this, I'll paste it below the line.
By the way, I couldn't find any example in other languages, so I'm not sure whether they exist or not, and I'm tending to "no".
It seems they are called Unpaired Words (maybe the best definition) or Absent Antonyms.
An unpaired word is one that, according to the usual rules of the language, would appear to have a related word but does not. Such words usually have a prefix or suffix that would imply that there is an antonym, with the prefix or suffix being absent or opposite.
Many unpaired words are the result of one of the words disappearing from popular usage, though others were never part of a pairing and just begin with the same letters as used in common prefixes. The classification of a word as “unpaired” can be problematic, as a word thought to be unattested might reappear in real-world usage
You can find some examples here, but I'll list the majority of them here anyway for easy reference.
Words with no positive forms:
Debunk; defenestrate; dejected; disconsolate; disdain; disgruntled; dishevelled; dismayed; disrupt; feckless; gormless; impetuous; impromptu; inane; incessant; inchoate; incognito; incommunicado; indomitable; ineffable; inept; inert; infernal; inhibited; insidious; insipid; insouciant; intact; invert; misgivings; misnomer; nonchalant; noncommittal; nondescript; nonpareil; nonplussed; unbeknownst; ungainly; unswerving; untold; untoward.
Words with uncommon positive forms:
Disarray; disconcerting; immaculate; impeccable; inadvertent; incapacitated; incorrigible; inevitable; innocent; inscrutable; insensate; insufferable; interminable; unbridled; unflappable; unfurl; unkempt; unmitigated; unrequited; unruly; unthinkable; unwieldy.
Suffixes (asterisk means "word not existing"):
- Indefatigable/*defatigable -> fatigable
- Flammable-Inflammable (not antonyms)