hello I have read wals chapter 136 very carefully and I cannot understand what paradigmatic means! can someone explain it (m-t pronouns referring to paradigmatic) shortly and give examples in german french or turkish? I am not phonologist and I cannot understand it! your help would be appreciated! thanks and best regards! here you can view the chapter : http://wals.info/chapter/136


1 Answer 1


According to WALS chapter 136, the languages are divided according to their words for the first and second person singular pronouns.

The M-T languages are the languages which have an /M/ sound (or similar sounds) for the first-person singular pronoun and a /T/ sound (or similar sounds) for the second-person singular pronoun.

The M-T paradigmatic languages are the languages where the /M/ and the /T/ sounds occur in the same position, i.e. you can find a common pattern.


             1sg   2sg   common
Accusative   mich  dich  _ich
Dative       mir   dir   _ir
Possessive   mein  dein  _ein


             1sg   2sg   common  note
Disjunctive  moi   toi   _oi
Accusative   me    te    _e      same as dative
Genitive     mon   ton   _on     masculine
             ma    ta    _a      feminine
             mes   tes   _es     plural
Possessive   mien  tien  _ien


             1sg    2sg    common
Absolute     ben    sen    _en
Accusative   beni   seni   _enin
Genitive     benim  senin  _eniN
Dative       bana   sana   _ana
Locative     bende  sende  _ende
Ablative     benden senden _enden


The fact that we can have a column "common" is what makes those language M-T paradigmatic instead of M-T non-paradigmatic.

  • 1
    so many thanks! this is what I have wanted! best regards and thanks!
    – erik2
    May 16, 2017 at 13:43
  • @erik2 if you found this answer useful, consider accepting this answer.
    – Kenny Lau
    May 16, 2017 at 15:59

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