By fluid-s I mean a stative-active language that relies on semantics for its morphosyntactic alignment, using things such as volition, empathy, animacy.

  • What do you mean by "purely"? Crow evidently has two lexically determined verb classes "Active" and "Stative" - is that what you are looking for? Jul 18, 2017 at 20:05
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    I think that's it.
    – saviosg
    Jul 19, 2017 at 0:24
  • I once read about Fluid-S languages in a book called "Ergativity" by R.M.W. Dixon. He contrasts subjects of intransitive verbs (S) with the subjects of transitive verbs (A) with the objects of transitive verbs (O). In nominative/accusative languages, like English and Finnish, S and A are marked identically. In ergative/absolutive languages, some verbs or other circumstances dictate that S is marked just like O. Jul 19, 2017 at 5:18

1 Answer 1


The Crow language (Apsáalooke) divides verbs into two classes, "Active" and "Stative". The division between classes is based on semantic criteria. The objects of transitive active verbs are marked like the subjects of stative verbs, and there is a different set of pronominal affixes for each verb type.


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