In Persian, the word Qadaqan (q is an uvular stop consonant, i.e. having the same place of articulation as the French r) means "emphasis" and "illegal", in some Persian dictionaries it is mentioned as a Turkic word, and some say it's Mongolian and in a linguistics book I read it's native Persian. I want someone who knows Turkic or Mongolian to tell me is this word from that origins?

  • Turkish has no uvular consonants, while Mongolian has /ɢ/ (voiced plosive), so my guess would be Mongolian based on that alone.
    – Draconis
    Jul 23 '17 at 3:40
  • 2
    It might help if you could give it in Persian script.
    – fdb
    Jul 23 '17 at 8:31
  • In Persian script: غدغن Jul 24 '17 at 19:58
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    @Draconis It doesn't have to be modern Turkish per se. Lots of Turkic languages have uvular consonants, e.g., Tatar. Kyrgyz, Kazakh, Qaraqalpaq, Crimean, Karachay, Bashkir, Uyghur and Kumyk (possibly more) even have uvulars in their very names!! And, several others have at least a velar fricative. Besides, based on cultural exchanges between Turks and Iranians throughout history (definitely more than Mongolians and Iranians), I'd guess a Turkic origin is much more likely. Jul 26 '17 at 17:59
  • @sami.spricht.sprache Fair! I was assuming the asker wanted Turkish as in the title rather than Turkic as in the body of the question.
    – Draconis
    Jul 26 '17 at 18:24

The modern Persian word pronounced /γadaγan/ means “prohibition” and the like; it is spelt both as غدغن and as قدغن. It can hardly be a native Persian word. I have searched for it in Clauson’s “Etymological dictionary of pre-thirteenth-century Turkish” (do note that Clauson uses “Turkish” to include all Turkic languages), as well as in several dictionaries of modern (Anatolian) Turkish, but found nothing.

It occurs, however, in the Urmi dialect of Neo-Aramaic. In his dictionary of that language Geoffrey Khan derives it via Azeri from Mongolian qadagala “to keep in confinement”.


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