"S1. I lived in Paris for many years. I, therefore, know many places in Paris"; "S2. Having lived in Paris for long, I know several places there". Can NLP techniques infer that S1 and S2 are similar semantically? If yes, which one (references)?
This is a problem that is very similar to the "Interpretable Semantic Textual Similarity" task of SemEval 2015 and 2016.
The task is to align two sentences and provide information which phrases of both sentences are related in which way with respect to semantic similarity.
For details see http://alt.qcri.org/semeval2016/task2/
You may look at deep learning approaches in general. This would be similar to what "reading comprehension tasks" are trying to achieve. Search for some papers and you shall find related ones, for example the paper "A Thorough Examination of the CNN/Daily Mail Reading Comprehension Task" at https://arxiv.org/abs/1606.02858.
There is also a paper list from a course I just had the last semester: http://www.sfs.uni-tuebingen.de/~ddekok/dl4nlp/ which you might find helpful.