There are a few different Romance etyma with the meaning 'marriage'. Some are derived from Latin casa 'house', some from mater 'mother', and some from mas/maris 'man':

L casa [+ -mentum] > CA casament, ES casamiento, PT casamento, RO căsătorie

L mater + -monium = matrimonium > CA matrimoni, ES/IT matrimonio, FR matrimoine, PT matrimónio, RO matrimoniu

L maris + -aticum > FR mariage

For the origins of the word coming from "casa" in these languages, the word could literally be translated in to English as 'housement'.

Specifically, I have a hunch that the word would have originally meant the joining of two houses as this is what marriage typically meant in more traditional societies. However, I could be wrong and the house portion of the word could just refer to the household of the husband and wife. What is the significance of the root "casa" as a part of the word's etymology?

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    This question is not "language specific". It is about Romance etymology. – fdb Aug 26 '17 at 23:08

In Italian there is a verb accasare “to marry”, and a noun accasamento “marriage”, etymologically “taking to the house, taking home”. This is evidently the basic meaning of the forms that you have cited.

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    So, in other words, you feel that these words don't relate to the joining of houses, but rather the husband and wife (or otherwise) taking to a house together.is that fair to say? – Melbourne Developer Aug 25 '17 at 19:15
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    Yes, because they involve the Latin preposition "ad". – fdb Aug 26 '17 at 23:06

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