It is well attested that the Sanskrit derivational suffix -ka for adjectives together with the syntesized participle on nominals like krta-ka>done, evolved as the possessive case marker in modern Indo-Aryan. My question is, is it possible that the -ka (apart from being possessive case marker) has extended its function as perfective aspect in any modern Indo-Aryan languages? If yes, how do I determine the stages of its evolution as perfective aspect? What should I read?

  • Can you please edit/elaborate on -> like krta-ka>done Commented Oct 3, 2017 at 7:32
  • Sanskrit root kr 'do' followed by the perfective participle form -ta means 'done', and by adding the derivational suffix for forming adjectives -ka it means the same 'done' only krtaka is an expanded variation of krta
    – user20110
    Commented Oct 3, 2017 at 17:51

1 Answer 1


Your presuppositions are faulty. Sanskrit kṛtaka is exactly what it is: a past passive participle from kṛ 'to do', followed by the adjectival suffix -ka. As such, it means 'the one who has been done'. Then, depending on the context, you can translate it in a number of ways, including a simple 'done', but this does not make it an "expanded variation of kṛta". It's another lexeme, not just a word-form of kṛ. Therefore, you can't search in the Modern Indo-Aryan languages for a continuation of something that did not exist in the Old Indo-Aryan.

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