Earlier today I was wondering about the similarity of domain (eng), domaine (fr) and the words for home or house dom (rus), dům (cz) makes me think they have some common root, is that true? If so, what is that root?

I know that at least Latin back in the days of the Roman empire had the word "domus" or does it go even further back to older languages?

I am new to the site so please feel free to edit tags or other things if they are not suitable.

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    This is not answer but just a comment, in turkish, "dam" means roof and in local dialects of Turkish language, "dam" means house for animals. Maybe the word "dam" was borrowed from ancient Anatolian languages which were Indo-European languages or it might be borrowed from Persian. – mehmetfa Mar 5 '18 at 16:53

Those words are really etymological cognates.

English domain is from Middle French domaine "domain, estate," from Old French demaine "lord's estate," from Latin dominium "property, dominion," from dominus "lord, master, owner," from domus "house" (from PIE root *dem- "house, household").

Russian дом (dom) is Proto-Slavic *domъ, from from Proto-Indo-European *dṓm (“house, home”), from root *dem- (“to build”). Cognates include Ancient Greek δόμος (dómos), Albanian dhomë (“a chamber, a room”), Sanskrit दम (dáma).

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    Wow even greek albanian and sanskrit. Languages sure are fascinating! – mathreadler Nov 1 '17 at 20:08

It is true. These languages are all historically related, being part of a language family known as Indo-European, and those words are representatives of the root reconstructed as *dem, meaning 'house, household'. Briefly, most languages of Europe (excluding Basque, Uralic languages, Turkish), as well as those of Iran to India (and neighboring areas), are members of this language family. German, Norwegian, English, Icelandic etc. for one branch (Germanic); Hindi, Panjabi and so on descended from Sanskrit are another branch (Indic). This web page at Texas provides a wealth of information on lexicon for further study.

"Domus" and "domain" are via Latin – English borrowed lots of words. The Slavic words, on the other hand, are indigenous Slavic inheritances. A similar common word is the root for father, *pəter. The correspondence English f: Latin p reflects a sound change (Grimm's Law) in the history of Germanic, and that (among other things) is how we know that English domain comes via Romance and Latin.

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