Something I see from time to time is the proportion of words from various sources, e.g. English has about 29% French, 29% Latin, 26% Germanic and 6% Greek words. I've never seen anything similar with grammar.
One of the languages I'm learning at the moment is Norwegian, and I'm constantly amazed at how often the word order is identical to English, taking into account minor differences such as the Norwegian definite article being suffixed to the noun, instead of being preceded by a separate word in English.
I would have expected English grammar to be closer to Dutch and German since all three are West Germanic languages, and Norwegian is a North Germanic language, although there was a heavy Old Norse influence on Old English. From my own experience it seems that English grammar is closer to Norwegian than Dutch or German, and this is something I'd like to learn more about.
Is this something that is studied? The comparative similarity between two languages' grammars? If so, what is it called?