The term you are looking for is (depending on etymological link) cognate, or false cognate:
False cognates are pairs of words that seem to be cognates because of similar sounds and meaning, but have different etymologies;
A famous example is the Mbabaram (extinct Australian Aboriginal language) word for dog, dog.
Some further examples are listed in the above Wikipedia page, e.g.:
Hindi काट (kaṭ) "cutting"
Ancient Greek ἄχος (ákhos) "pain, distress"
Arabic أستاذ (ʾustāḏ) "formal pronoun; teacher"
Japanese 見る (miru);
Spanish mirar "to watch"
Japanese 絵文字 (emoji);
Japanese ありがとう (arigatō);
Portuguese (obrigado) "thank you"
Additionally, there is the term false friend:
False friends are words in two languages that look or sound similar, but differ significantly in meaning.
Which would cover cognates and false cognates which differ in (at least one of) their meanings.
Cognate false friends:
Spanish actual "current"
Spanish preservativo "condom"
Japanese アイス (aisu) "ice-cream"
Non-cognate false friends:
Russian ефрейтор (yefreitor) "corporal"
Spanish afamada "famous";
Catalan afamada "hungry*
An amusing example is 手紙 (composed of the characters 手 - hand, and 紙 - paper) which in Japanese means tegami "written message" but in Chinese means shǒuzhǐ "toilet paper".