I need a thorough online site or downloadable text that goes into detail about English phrase markers as in this example from Beth Levin's Verb Alternations book "This alternation involves verbs found in two frames in a near-paraphrase relationship: NP1 V[pp P NP2]' and '[np NP1 and NP2] V apart]" where and and apart are actual words and not slots to be filled.

This looks like phrase markers from generative grammar, but I don't necessarily need the text to be linguistic theory specific, although it would be okay if the text or site did go into detail about how academicians proposing different theories use phrase markers in their work.

I am building an NLP software tool and will need to incorporate these markers into the code. Thanks in advance to any answers. All will be useful.

  • Thanks for editing this question to add the tag. Computational linguistics. Upon further research, I found the following paper which will give me more terms I can use to search Google Scholar. Daniel Gildea and Daniel Jurafsky. 2002. Automatic Labeling of Semantic Roles. Computational Linguistics 28:3, 245-288. Commented Jan 18, 2018 at 0:37
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    Have a look at LFG, they use phrase structures for hierarchy and dags for grammatical functions. Good for inspiration.
    – Atamiri
    Commented Jan 18, 2018 at 12:51
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    Perfect, Atamiri. If this were comment I would have selected it. Commented Jan 18, 2018 at 17:53

1 Answer 1


Per Atamiri's suggestion I found the following papers on Lexical Functional Grammar:

  1. Faulk, Yehuda. Lexical-Functional Grammar. http://web.stanford.edu/group/cslipublications/cslipublications/pdf/1575863405.pdf

  2. Dalrymple, Mary. Lexical-Functional Grammar: Comparing Frameworks.

  3. Chapter 19 of an unknown textbook. http://dingo.sbs.arizona.edu/~carnie/publications/PDF/Web1.Chapter19LFG%20copy.pdf [This provides a look at alternative theories and the linguistic theories underlying LFG.]

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    IMHO the best book on LFG is this one: amazon.com/…
    – Atamiri
    Commented Jan 18, 2018 at 19:54
  • That one looks great. And there's a great list of other related textbooks just after the front cover that will also come in handy for my project. Commented Jan 19, 2018 at 0:54

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