What does the symbol
*! mean when it is referred to the constraints ONSET and NoCODA?
For example in my professor's notes, when /CVCV/ is syllabified as CVC.V, both ONSET and NoCODA take the symbol
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I assume this is Optimality Theory, so that mark indicates when a constraint violation is the deciding 'fatal' violation for one of the possible forms. Specifically, asterisk (*) marks a violation of a constraint, and the addition of the exclamation mark (!) indicates that this violation was the deciding one. (See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Optimality_Theory)