As we all know, most languages of the world are spoken orally. And there is a number of signed languages, mostly used by Deaf people.

But are there any languages which use both modality at once ?

Are there any languages that require both gesture and sounds ?

  • 4
    This isn't exactly the same, but at least some sign languages use lip movements for grammatical purposes. Also, many speakers of sign language are bilingual in a spoken language and apparently may use both modalities simultaneously to some extent Jan 26, 2018 at 23:36
  • 2
    The term "mixed language" is most usually found in reference to spoken languages like Michif, where there is significant mixing between two or more spoken languages (in the case of Michif, Cree and French).
    – jlawler
    Jan 27, 2018 at 1:54
  • 5
    Not sure this is what you’re looking for, but there’s some research by Glendon Lean on counting systems in Papua New Guniea. From what I remember, you point at body parts to denote numbers. So, someone might say ‘The farmer has [points at left ear] goats’, to mean the farmer has 21 (let’s say) goats. I think you only need to sign (i.e., point at your ear) when you say that, and no spoken word is required.
    – MarkOxford
    Jan 27, 2018 at 13:39
  • 6
    Ixil, a Mayan language, has gestural nominal classifiers.
    – jlawler
    Jan 27, 2018 at 17:52
  • 2
    The constructed language Dritok is such a mixed language, see this question on Constructed Languages conlang.stackexchange.com/questions/825/… Jan 9, 2019 at 13:29


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