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In the book Shaktapramode (example page), there is a strange symbol unfamiliar symbol that I have never encountered before.

Here it is in the context: enter image description here.

Does anybody know what it signifies? Thank you!

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    There is a proposal to create a Sanskrit stackexchange, you can follow it here: area51.stackexchange.com/proposals/109951/… Feb 21 '18 at 10:31
  • This is a Daivanāgarī question, not a Sanskrit one. Sanskrit can be written in the Latin script, and will definitely lack this mark
    – Darkgamma
    Feb 21 '18 at 15:28
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    Thank you for the correction and the unicode, @Darkgamma. I have edited the title to indicate that.
    – stason
    Feb 22 '18 at 3:55
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The technical term for this symbol is called jihvamuliya. When a visarga is followed by either क/ख the visarga is replaced with this special symbol. It is pronounced with as "ahka/ahkha" with some amount of aspiration.

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  • Fantastic! Thank you, @linuxfan. So if I were to type it in devanagari e.g. on a virtual keyboard like: [gate2home.com/Sanskrit-Keyboard] - I only see ':' How can I then correctly transliterate it in IAST? just use plain ḥ? Finally perhaps the info you shared can be added to: [en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Visarga]? Thank you
    – stason
    Feb 22 '18 at 1:46
  • I can't find the characters for jihvamuliya and upadhmaniya on the keyboard. I think publishers use a different set of characters to represent these sounds. Here's an image of how these are printed in my book: imgur.com/a/saubL I've seen other variants in other books as well.
    – linuxfan
    Feb 22 '18 at 4:37
  • Thank you, @linuxfan. I tried using ᳲ from [unicode-table.com/en/#1CF2] as suggested here by Darkgamma, but transliteration tools like [ashtangayoga.info/sanskrit/transliteration/transliteration-tool/… don't know what to do with it and leave it untransliterated: e.g. मनस्ᳲ - manasaᳲ. For now I have just replaced it with normal visarga.
    – stason
    Feb 22 '18 at 15:57
  • Leaving the visarga as-is in places such as कः करोति, कः पचति is technically correct. The sounds jihva-muliya and upadhmaniya are only relevant when reading the text. Representing them in text has little benefit other than making the reader alert that they should be enunciated differently.
    – linuxfan
    Feb 22 '18 at 18:14
  • Perfect. I much appreciated your supportive commentary, @linuxfan.
    – stason
    Feb 23 '18 at 7:15
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It is possible that this glyph is what Unicode calls VEDIC SIGN ARDHAVISARGA (seen in this codepoint list for the Vedic Extensions block). Despite its positioning in the Vedic Extensions block, its use is reportedly "not limited to Vedic."

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  • Is that code 1CF2?
    – Mitch
    Feb 21 '18 at 19:38
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    @Mitch appears to be so, yes
    – Darkgamma
    Feb 21 '18 at 23:44

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