For a small research project, I am looking at the negation in Finnish. I don’t actually speak Finnish, but I understand that there is a special auxiliary verb – the negation verb – which is used to negate statements. It is inflected for person and number. When the negation verb is used on a non-past indicative verb, that verb takes a special form, instead of the usual inflection for person and number. So, if I understand correctly, Otan sen (‘I take it’) becomes En ota sitä (‘I don’t take it’) instead of #En ota-n sitä. (Sen becomes sitä because the direct object of a negated verb takes the partitive, right?)
Now, my question is how personal pronouns enter into this. In particular, is there any difference between the following?
(1) En ota sitä - vs - Minä en ota sitä
Are both grammatically correct? Is ‘minä’ redundant but acceptable? Are both equally natural? Do they mean the same? What if we move to a different person or a different tense? (I hope I got the sample sentences right.)
(2) Ei ota sitä - vs - Hän ei ota sitä
(3) En ottanut sitä - vs - Minä en ottanut sitä
If the answer is that there is no difference, or only a small difference, are there any contexts where the two come apart? What about e.g. ‘Jane doesn’t like Henry and neither do I / and I don’t either’. (I’ll spare us all the embarrassment of a bad translation.) Would it be possible / necessary, to say minä in the second part of the sentence? Similarly, would it be possible / necessary to say hän in e.g. ‘Every time a customer orders a steak, he doesn’t finish it’?
I should stress that I am primarily interested in cases where the pronoun is impossible (if there are any), and less interested in ones where the pronoun is obligatory (if any).
Lastly, if I want to say ‘John knows that I didn’t take it’, would the following be correct?
(4a) John tietää, etten ottanut sitä.
If so, is etten an inflected form of että (‘that’), and is it correct that there is no negation verb present? Could one add it, and could one also add minä? In other words, what’s the status of the following?
(4b) John tietää, etten en ottanut sitä.
(4c) John tietää, etten minä ottanut sitä.
(4d) John tietää, etten minä en ottanut sitä.