I'm wondering if there's a name for a phenomenon that I think of in the following way: Some words are far more deeply embedded within a language than others.
I'm contrasting the words "do" and "become" in English with their respective German counterparts "tun" and "werden". "Do" is more deeply embedded in English than "become".
It is used in such sentence as "What will you do?" or "That's what I did.",
but it is also used as an auxiliary verb in negative and interrogative sentences, as in "He does not sing" rather than "He sings not" or "Did he sing?" rather than "Sang he?".
It is also used as a pro-verb, standing in for other verbs, as in "Did he sing?" "He did."
By contrast, in German, "werden" is more deeply embedded in the language than "tun". "Tun" is used in German counterparts of "What will you do?" or "That's what I did." but it does not have the other uses listed above. "Werden" not only means "become" but
is also used as the auxiliary verb for forming the future tense, corresponding to "shall" or "will" in English (German, like English, lacks a full-fledged future tense)
and in addition is used in forming the passive voice, just as "be" serves that purpose in English.
So is there some name for that?