3

I find a paper containing new lists of cognates on PIE root level, and don't know such phenomena or rules are convincing or not, the list follows below:

1. The voiceless stop vs. voiced aspirated stop alternation3

1.1. *dʰrei̯k(ʰ)- vs. *dʰrei̯gʰ-: ‘hair, bristle’

1.2. *h₁eḱ(s)- vs. *h₁eǵʰ(s)-: ‘out’

1.3. *(h₂)kou̯s- vs. *gʰou̯s-: ‘hear, sound’

1.4. **h₁reu̯t- vs. *h₁reu̯dʰ-: ‘red’

1.5. *ḱ(e)rd- vs. *ǵʰ(e)rd-: ‘heart’

1.6. *kap- vs. *gʰabʰ-: ‘grab, take’

1.7. *kaput- vs. *k(a)ubʰut-: ‘head’

1.8. *ḱel-1 vs. *ǵʰel(h₂)-/*gʰel-1: ‘warm, bright, shine, yellow, green, blue, sun’

1.9. *ḱelb- vs. *ǵʰelb-/gʰelb-: ‘help’

1.10. *ḱer-2 vs. *gʰer-: ‘grow’

1.11 . *ḱe-/*ḱo- vs. *gʰe-/*gʰo-: ‘this, that’

1.12. *ko(m)- vs. **gʰo(m)-: ‘with, together’

1.13. *lei̯p-1 vs. *Hlei̯bʰ-: ‘smear, stick’

1.14. *lei̯t-1, *lei̯t(ʰ)-29 vs. *lai̯dʰ-: ‘be disgusted, suffer, hurt’

1.15. *lento-12 vs. *lendʰ-1: ‘flexible, fluid’

1.16. *mei̯k- vs. *mei̯gʰ-: ‘close the eyes’

1.17. *n̥ter- vs. *n̥dʰer-: ‘under, below’

1.18. *pel-9 vs. *bʰel-1: ‘white, shine, burn’

1.19. *per-2/*per-2B vs. *bʰer-1: ‘over, go over, carry over’

1.20. *pleu̯- vs. *bʰleu̯-: ‘run, flow, swim’

1.21 . *pleu̯k- vs. **pleu̯gʰ-: ‘fly’

1.22. *plou̯- vs. *b(ʰ)lou̯-: ‘flea’

1.23. *rep- vs. *rebʰ-: ‘grab, rip out, be taken, be furious’

1.24. *sek-2, *skei̯- vs. *segʰ-, **sgʰei̯-: ‘cut, separate’

1.25. *(s)keu̯p- vs. *(s)keu̯b(ʰ)-: ‘bundle, flock’

1.26. *telek- vs. *teleǵʰ-13: ‘hit’

1.27. *ters- vs. *dʰer-2: ‘dry’

1.28. *-tlom vs. *-dʰlom, *-trom vs. *-dʰrom: instrumental suffixes

1.29. *tragʰ- vs. *dʰ(e)ragʰ-: ‘pull, bring’

1.30. *u̯ekʷ- vs. *u̯egʷʰ-: ‘speak, speak solemnly’

2. The *l/*n alternation

2.1. *al-1, *ol- vs. *an-2, *on-: ‘this, that’

2.2. *mel-4 vs. *men(e)gʰ-: ‘much’

2.3. *pleu̯- vs. *pneu̯-: ‘flow, blow’

2.4. *-sleh₂ vs. *-sneh₂: object indicative suffixes

2.5. *su̯el- vs. *su̯en-: ‘sun’

2.6. *u̯el-2 vs. *u̯en-1/*u̯enH-: ‘want, love’

2.7. *u̯el-8 vs. *u̯en-2: ‘hurt, hit’

3. Co-occurrence of both alternations

3.1. *gal-2 vs. *gʰel- vs. *kel-6 vs. *kan-/*ḱan-: ‘call, cry, sing’

The data is from "Consonantal Alternations in Indo-European Roots: Diatopic and/or Diachronic Variants or Functional Mechanism?", published by "Journal of Indo-European Studies The 45 Vol., 2017"

  • I do not know for others but r/n and l/n alterations at the end on the stem are well known, this is common in the most ancient stems. In nominative it would keep l or r while in orther cases and in adjectives it would change to n. Example: u̯odr/u̯ednos (water/watery) – Anixx Apr 7 '18 at 5:33
  • See heteroclitic stems for (a little) more information on these. – Colin Fine Apr 8 '18 at 10:01
3

Possibly but we're delving here into the language that went before proto-Indo-European. The alternations are ones found in other languages. For example the l/n alternation is found in Ancient Egyptian and the k/gh is reminiscent (although different) to Verner's alternations in Germanic, so the theory is not far-fetched. There may be the relic of the l/n alternation in Germanic in the word for 'sun' (English 'sun' but Gothic 'sauil'), which indicates there may have still been an l/n grammatical alternation in proto-germanic. Given the number of pairs found by Bizzocchi it looks likely and I'm sure that many theories can be built around this evidence.

| improve this answer | |
  • The consonant alternation involving voiceless stop and voiced aspirated stop is unknown to me, would you provide some reference of this rule? And I find another paper having similar claims but more difficult to read due to my lack of knowledge of PPIE, academia.edu/27643519/… – archenoo Apr 13 '18 at 3:20
  • As far as I know there is no 'rule'. My reading of what the author you quoted is saying is that he is listing word pairs in the hope that a future philologist will discover a rule. What I said above is that it is reminiscent of word pairs in other languages so is not far-fetched. – Ned Apr 13 '18 at 9:25

Your Answer

By clicking “Post Your Answer”, you agree to our terms of service, privacy policy and cookie policy

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged or ask your own question.