# What software is used to make these X-bar trees?

I'm looking for software for illustrating tree diagrams am wondering whether anyone knows which was used to create the one in the post linked below.

I have tried messaging the author, but had no luck and was wondering whether someone recognized the application used or maybe has suggestions for others.

Example tree:

• Looking at the fonts, I think it is LaTeX, but I don't know the additional package used. – jk - Reinstate Monica Apr 11 '18 at 7:11
• I'm voting to close this question as off-topic because it is not concerned with linguistics. – WiccanKarnak Apr 11 '18 at 10:15
• Allthough the question is probably also on-topic on TeX - LaTeX (with some reformuöation, like what LaTeX package is used to generate the trees) I voted to leave it open because the answer might be relevant to linguists and readers of this stackexchange. – jk - Reinstate Monica Apr 11 '18 at 14:21
• @NickNicholas I believe that refers to "can you please draw a syntax tree for this sentence" (apparently a common homework assignments in some curricula) rather than "I can produce a syntax tree but I want a tool to help me make it production quality". – tripleee Apr 12 '18 at 5:16
• Author of the screenshotted post here -- I am only now seeing this question, but yes, this was done with LaTeX and tix-qtree, as layed out nicely in the accepted answer. – lemontree Oct 29 '19 at 12:29

This is almost certainly done with LaTeX, or one of its friends, and the tikz-qtree package. It is an improvement of the qtree package with nicer node placement. If you are not familiar with LaTeX, and want to learn more, this Wikibook might help (link is to the page about linguistics, but the book is in general about LaTeX). Both tikz-qtree and qtree have a quite extensive manual.

Below is LaTeX code using the tikz-qtree package to draw your tree. The only difference with the original seems to be that the bar over the T and the v is less bold. Perhaps this was done with something like this, but I cannot get it to look exactly the same.

\documentclass[margin=5mm]{standalone}
\usepackage{tikz-qtree}
\begin{document}

\Tree [.TP
[.NP Jane$_i$ ]
[.\=T
[.T did T(past) ]
[.NegP
[.Neg not ]
[.vP
[.NP t$_i$ ]
[.\=v v [.VP \edge[roof]; {go to school} ] ]
]
]
]
]

\end{document}


An older version of this answer just used the qtree package (instead of tikz-qtree) and draws something that looks like your tree. The only trick we need is to use array and \setlength{\extrarowheight}{2pt}, because otherwise the bar over the T is touched by the edge. The differences with the original:

• The overbar is less bold;
• in the original, nodes on one level are on the same height (e.g. Janei and T and NegP);
• qtree does not consider text height to draw edges, so there is a lot of space from the edge to the text of the v node at the very bottom (because it has no capital); in the original this looks better.
\documentclass[margin=5mm]{standalone}
\usepackage{qtree}
\usepackage{array}
\setlength{\extrarowheight}{2pt}
\begin{document}

\Tree [.TP
[.NP Jane_i ]
[.\=T
[.T did T(past) ]
[.NegP
[.Neg not ]
[.vP
[.NP t_i ]
[.\=v v \qroof{go to school}.VP ]
]
]
]
]

\end{document}


• Author of the screenshotted post here -- yes, this is precisely how it was done, LaTeX with tikz-qtree. IIRC I did the bars with \overline{\text{T}}, though \={T} is simpler. – lemontree Oct 29 '19 at 12:35

If you want a VISUAL editor for Syntactic Trees, I think TreeForm could be a solution for you. The software is a specific solution for drawing Trees in a WYSIWYG approach. It has "templates" for X-Bar 3 levels (XP-X'-X), adding adjuncts/complements, etc, all with one click and some typing (actually, not literally a click, you drag and drop models/phrases and add them to the tree).

The software has several possible improvements and limitations, but it works. I have actually found this thread while looking for a better solution, but meanwhile it's the best thing I know about (considering my preference for a visual editor).

• This doesn't answer the question. – curiousdannii Oct 29 '19 at 10:10
• How so? It says: "I'm looking for software for illustrating tree diagrams [...]". Isn't that what I just presented, @curiousdannii ??? – Bruno Oct 30 '19 at 1:07
• @curiousdannii take a look at this comment from the same person: "Agreed. I’m looking specifically for software to illustrate (i.e. construct) trees, not automatic parsing". – luhausler Apr 11 '18 at 21:12 – Bruno Oct 30 '19 at 1:16
• Please, notice he says he's looking "for software to illustrate", not "for the software which illustrated". – Bruno Oct 30 '19 at 1:17