2

The introductory non-finite clauses below (in bold)

Speeding down the road, Peter ran a red light.

Discouraged by his losing record, the boxer quit boxing

what, if anything, do they modify?

Do they modify the subject of each sentence ("Peter," "the boxer"), the main verb ("ran," "quit"), or the entire main clause ("Peter ran a red light," "the boxer quit boxing)?

How do linguists analyze such introductory non-finite clauses? Are there reliable tests for it?

And are such non-finite clauses actually relative clauses that have been (1) reduced by omitting the relative pronoun and linking verb, and (2) moved to the front of each sentence for greater focus?

Thanks in advance

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