I'm new to linguistics (fresh off the boat) and am curious if there is some type of equation/field/sub-field that tries to quantify the conceptual similarity between distinct languages. Not just the difference between the syntax itself, but how much the the concepts conveyed by each language differ.
What got me thinking about this is that some languages (say Chinese vs English) seem to have evolved somewhat independently from each other. Presumably they both try to represent the same world, but what I wonder is how much variability there is in this representation. In other words, can we quantify the degree to which distinct cultures have conceptualized the world differently?
If a mod could tag this question, that'd be great!