Gender, at least in romance languages (but generally in many SAE languages), can be described briefly as an intrinsic lexical property of nouns that trigger an agreement in its dependents : a noun belongs to one class, and its dependents (typically determiners and adjectives) must agree in gender with it.
For example in Spanish :
la hija buena
can be glossed as
'the.FEM daughter good.FEM'
"the good daughter"
Where "la" and "good" are in the feminine because they're dependencies of a feminine noun.
Are there any languages where such a system exists for other parts of speech ?
For example a language where adjectives would belong to one of two or more classes and trigger an agreement among their dependent adverbs ?
Such that a gloss could look like this, assuming that the adjective for "young" belong in class number II :