I would have typed a clearer question in the title, but it would have been way too long.
By "static," I mean a word or phrase that refers to one object, and one object only. ex.
- The Eiffel Tower
- The United States of America
- Bill Gates
By "dynamic," I mean something for which the closest analogy I can think of is a UNIX symlink. ex.
- The current president of the US (sort of like a symlink to Donald Trump, where Donald Trump is a "static" noun)
- The pen on the table (again, like a symlink. Unlike the above, there is no canonical name to refer to this object).
- My phone
- Tonight (refers to a period of time, which in this case might be 20180708 190000 - 230000 EST)
Does this difference exist as a linguistic notion? Again, the best analogy I can come up with is comparing a UNIX file (of any type other than symlink) and a UNIX symlink.