Like a rolling r, if there is a rolling g like gurgling in any language. There is a rolling h like ħ.

Like ch or sh, if there is a psh or bjsh, like booj but shorter. Likewise, a gsh or gj sound.

2 Answers 2


By "rolling r" I assume you mean the alveolar trill, written /r/ in the IPA. It's possible to have trilled sounds at other places in the mouth, such as the bilabial trill (with the lips, like English "brrr"), IPA /ʙ/, and the uvular trill (with the uvula, like the French trilled R), IPA /ʀ/. You can also do an epiglottal trill deep in the throat, as you pointed out, but very few languages distinguish between an epiglottal/pharyngeal trill/fricative, so it's generally written /ħ/ (officially the symbol for a voiceless pharyngeal fricative).

A "trilled g", or velar trill, is generally considered impossible. There just isn't enough flexibility in that part of the mouth to really get anything vibrating properly. Similarly, a "tapped g" (velar tap/flap) is considered impossible.

The sound written "ch" in English is IPA /tʃ/: a "t" sound releasing into a "sh" sound. You can certainly have other sounds release into a "sh" or a "zh" in the same way: they would be written as /pʃ bʒ kʃ gʒ/ in the IPA. The last two of these are actually found in English: listen to the "x" in "sexual" and "luxurious".

However, all four of these are significantly less common than /tʃ/, because /t/ and /ʃ/ are pronounced very close to each other in the mouth, so it's very easy for a /t/ to develop a bit of /ʃ/ fricative sound at the end, especially around palatal consonants or high front vowels.

  • By trilled g I mean like a dogs growl, ggggggggrrrrrr. There also seems to be a trilled f, like the flatulence sound. Or trilled th with the other flatulence sound. Trilled p with the lips. Trilled b is kind of hard for me, I have to be loud to do it. Trilled t like a machine gun sound, could also be a trilled d if you add some voice. Wonder if these have symbols in linguistics / IPA.
    – Lance
    Aug 27, 2018 at 15:36
  • Maybe there is a trilled a like a sheep's baaaaa or hahahaha.
    – Lance
    Aug 27, 2018 at 15:43

As for the velar trill, I think it is physically impossible. A trill involves a piece of meat flapping rapidly in the speech airstream, thanks to the Bernoulli effect. This can be done with the tip of the tongue, lips, or uvula, but the tongue blade is massive, and cannot be made to "trill" using ordinary speech airflow.

Affricates like [ts, tθ, tʃ, pf, kx, qχ] are single phonological segments, usually at a single place of articulation, composed of a stop component then a fricative component. Sesotho has "affricates" of the type [pʃ] -- which might be what you are looking for. The problem is that arguments for "single segment" vs "two segment" status tend to be theory-bound and rely on certain idealizations, for example the affricate [ts] in German could be treated as a cluster and not a single segment. The counter-argument is that German doesn't otherwise have stop-plus-fricative onsets e.g. *kseit, *pxeffer -- the idealization is that a language should not have a condition on clusters "must be homorganic". There is subtheory of phonology which disposes of ordered individual segments in the syllable onset, which says that the single segment "pf" and the cluster "pf" are just notational variants and are not linguistically distinct. It is almost true that clusters and analogous affricates don't contrast in languages, except that Polish contrasts the cluster [tʃ] ("trzy"=three) and the affricate [ʧ] ("czy"=whether).

Your Answer

By clicking “Post Your Answer”, you agree to our terms of service and acknowledge you have read our privacy policy.

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged or ask your own question.