So in Spanish and other languages there are accents like:
And in Chinese there are tone shifts as in this graphic:
The tones are accounted for in English / Romanization by adding accent marks:
1. mā 2. má 3. mǎ 4. mà 5. ma
In the Spanish case, the accent is for emphasis (like giving more force or focus to the sound), while in Chinese the accent is for tonality, or the curve in your tone.
So there are these two features I'm referencing:
- Tonality curving.
I am wondering if there are any other language features along the lines of these. Not sure if the umlaut would count. (I'm not talking about accent marks in the written language, of which there are all kinds of examples, I'm just talking about variations in the sound). I would just consider the umlaut another flat sound, since all the sounds already vary in the way your mouth is shaped. So I guess the list could expand some more:
- Emphasis/focus. (Spanish café)
- Tonality curving. (Chinese má)
- Mouth shape. (All languages)
- Tone. (Not in English at least, only in music does tone count).
- Duration. (How long the sound is held. Also not in English, not sure about other languages).
So I'm wondering if one could expand this list with the other "sound-based" features of different languages as a whole, and for the ones I listed that don't exist in English (Tone and Duration), if any examples could be provided of these in other languages.
Wondering if these other features are captured in the written languages as well.