So the tilde used on the top vs. the bottom means different things (nasal vs. creaky voice). This got me wondering if the [ ̥ ] ring means anything differently when it is on the top as seen here ŋ̊. The IPA chart says when it's on the bottom it means voiceless, but wanted to clarify and see if it meant anything different when on the top.
Next, I saw these small superscript symbols: [ᵐ ᵑ ᶮ ʱ]. Wondering what [ᵐ ᵑ ᶮ] are for, if they are just some variant of nasalization or if they are something different. [ʱ] I assume is for breathy voice, but I don't see why they don't follow the IPA doc and use diaeresis below like [a̤].
The phonetic symbols for unicode lists quite a few symbols that aren't found in the IPA doc: [ʳ ʴ ʵ ʶ] (r-coloring or r-offglides). These also I'm not sure where they fit in: [ʹ ʺ ʻ ʼ ʽ ʾ ʿ ˂ ˃ ˄ ˅ ˆ ˇ ˈ ˉ ˊ ˋ ˌ ˍ ˎ ˏ].
Then I saw these in the Estonian phonology: [pː] [tː] [tʲː] [kː]. I'm not sure how those can be long since they happen in an instant. They also show [fː] [sː] [sʲː] [ʃː] [hː] which is the first time I've seen it otherwise not on vowels.
The Yuki phonology has a voiceless t with [ t̥ ], but I thought [t] was already voiceless so this just has me wondering if I am missing something, or they are just getting extra specific on saying the [t] can't become a [d] and be voiced.
Then there are two different unicode symbols for pharyngealization: [ˁ ˤ]. They look the same but find/replace shows they are different. Wondering if that is just a glitch or if there are two different meanings that I can't quite see because of how small it is.
I also saw [ ˀ ] in unicode (the reverse of the pharyngealization symbol, i.e. the glottal stop symbol, but small), wondering what that's for. The Yuki phonology has it in [ˀm]. Wondering if that is just the same as doing /'m/.
Finally, the Mam phonology has [ ɑ͍ ] which has the
͍ two-way arrow beneath which I haven't seen in the IPA doc. Wondering what that means.
So to summarize, these are the things I've seen that aren't in the IPA sheet:
- [ ɑ͍ ]
- [ ˀ ]
- [ᵐ ᵑ ᶮ ʱ]
- [ʳ ʴ ʵ ʶ]
- [ʹ ʺ ʻ ʼ ʽ ʾ ʿ ˂ ˃ ˄ ˅ ˆ ˇ ˈ ˉ ˊ ˋ ˌ ˍ ˎ ˏ]
Wondering if one could explain what these mean.