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How is it different from a loanword? One example given was mitkind created on stimulus of English sibling. Does this mean mitkind is a new word but with a foreign sense? Is there such thing as loaning a sense?

  • Is it another term for a calque? – Gaston Ümlaut Oct 22 '18 at 2:18
  • Can you edit this to provide a quote of it being used? – curiousdannii Oct 22 '18 at 3:23
  • Which language are you asking about? German? – fdb Oct 22 '18 at 12:07
  • So, mitkind is based on an English word but not an English loan? No from English in the etymology? How is it different to English just picking up Greek and French words to use as new words? – jennab Oct 23 '18 at 4:57
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The original German term was Lehnschöpfung that was calqued into English.

There are three beasts to distinguish here:

  • The loan word (German Lehnwort) that is directly borrowed from the donor language with minor adaptions to the target language
  • The calque (German Lehnübersetzung) that is formed from morphemes in the target language following a model in the donor language (example: German Aus-stellung from Latin ex-positio)
  • The loan creation (German Lehnschöpfung) is a new word in the target language filling a perceived semantic gap triggered by a donor language. The way that word is formed has no relation to the donor language. Yiddish mitkind is a great example, other classical examples are newly introduced religious terminology after the adoption of a new religion (typically Christianity).

P.S. A really well written and even more detailed answer can be found here: https://www.quora.com/Concerning-German-linguistic-terminology-what-are-the-differences-and-relations-among-Entlehnung-Lehnpr%C3%A4gung-Lehnbedeutung-Lehnbildung-Lehn%C3%BCbersetzung-Lehn%C3%BCbertragung-Lehnsch%C3%B6pfung-and-Scheinentlehnung

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  • What is entlehnt about a Lehnschöpfung? – fdb Oct 22 '18 at 14:42
  • @fdb The fact that there is now a one-to-one translation for a certain foreign word where previously a circumlocution or the insertion of a foreign word was necessary. – jk - Reinstate Monica Oct 22 '18 at 15:06
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    In English, "sibling" died out in the 15th century and was reintroduced in the 20th century as a technical term in anthropology. – fdb Oct 22 '18 at 15:22
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    @fdb Interesting! I did not know that before, given how common and natural the word sibling sounds nowadays. – jk - Reinstate Monica Oct 22 '18 at 15:32
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    I can't find any reference for "mitkind". My Yiddish dictionary only has "geshvester". – fdb Oct 22 '18 at 15:34

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