Catford (1978) divides the shift in translation into two major types, level/rank shift and category shift. Level/rank shift refers to a source language item at one linguistic level that has a target language translation equivalent at a different level. In other words, it is simply a shift from grammar to lexis.
I don’t quite understand what the word ‘level’ in level shift refers to. Level of what?
The only examples I have found so far use present continous or perfect constructions, such has have been, to be + ‑ing, &c.
But are there other classes of examples of level shift to be had?
- French: Elle est intelligente
- English: She's intelligent
in french, the adjective intelligent has -e in the end of it because its gender, but in english there's no system like that. So does that count as level shift?
Also in this example:
- French: les fleurs
- English: flower
The resulting translation used singular not plural like the source language did. Should this also to be considered a level shift?
also, for anyone who understand this in Bahasa Indonesia, i have another example.
French: Ils sont devenus trop grands
Indonesian: Mereka jadi kebesaran
the adjective "grand" has "-s" in the end because it follows the subject but there's no such thing as that in Indonesian. does it also considered as a level shift?