I'm looking for words that are monomorphemic in English – preferably basic words describing things in nature such as star, water, tree, grass, etc. – but polymorphemic in other languages. It would be great if you could then also name the individual morphemes of the words.
Why am I interested in this? I'm currently writing a paper in which I want to criticize Jerry Fodor's thesis that there is a "language of thought" (call it "Mentalese") that is universal to all humans and prior to all public languages. He upholds a kind of linguistic atomism in which the meaning of a phrase (or in this case, a thought) is derived from the meaning of its basic constituents (in this case, its basic concepts). Fodor argues that basic concepts are those concepts that are expressed by monomorphemic names for individuals and kinds (like the above examples). He exclusively uses English as an example, however.
If I can provide some examples of words that would be monomorphemic in English and thus very good candidates for being basic concepts, but are formed out of multiple morphemes in other languages, then I can argue that Fodor either cannot say anything substantial on what basic conepts are, or that he must admit that the language we speak shapes the way we think, a thesis he admantly rejects.
Since I only know German and English, I would be very thankful for examples.