One the one hand, Berlin and Kay found a linguistic hierarchy of colors. On the other hand, some languages have several kinds of colors.
In French, color adjectives are invariable if they come from nouns, e.g. orange, marron (brown).
In Japanese there are (in my view) four kinds of colors:
- four i adjectives (the older and 'purer' class of adjectives): 黒い (kuroi, black), 白い (shiroi, white), 赤い (akai, red), 青い (aoi, blue/green);
- three kanji representing colors but not directly i adjectives themselves: 黄 (ki, yellow), 紫 (murasaki, purple), 緑 (midori, green);
- words meaning explicitly 'the color of X': 茶色 (chairo, brown, lit. 'color of tea'), 灰色 (haiiro, grey, lit. 'color of ash'), 銀色 (gin'iro, 'color of silver'), etc. (possibly an open list);
- words coming from English: pinku, orenji, etc.
Are there other languages where there exist different grammatical classes of color adjectives?