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I would like to know about the syntactic tree of cleft sentences. is the clefted elemnt moved from the original position? or Is it base-generated? I would like to knwo some referrences about this. Thank you.

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    Are you referring to It-clefts or Wh-clefts? Or some other variety? There are many different kinds, all with puzzling restrictions. – jlawler Apr 23 at 22:19
  • i firstly think about it-clefts. but now I would like to know about the defferences between it-cleft and wh-cleft. – Atsushi Apr 24 at 23:40
  • The chicken ate the worm == It-Cleft ==> It was the worm that the chicken ate and It was the chicken that ate the worm (other constituents can be clefted besides subjects and objects). The timing belt destroyed the water pump == Wh-Cleft ==> What the timing belt destroyed was the water pump and What destroyed the water pump was the timing belt. There are other varieties, but those are the most prominent. – jlawler Apr 25 at 0:04
  • Syntactically, is the clefted elements/phrase moved from the original position to the front? – Atsushi Apr 26 at 7:18
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    I really sorry for sending reply late. Also, I really appriciate your kindful and concrete answer. I have to read McCawley 1998. Thank you very much. – Atsushi May 14 at 2:11

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