2

My native language is Korean. I'm not learning Arabic, but I'm curious anyway.

Refer to the following link for the letter names I recorded myself: Arabic pharyngeal consonants

I think I can pronounce plain /ħ/ and /ʕ/ properly.

For the pharyngealized fricatives /sˤ/ and /zˤ/, I understand them as coarticulated [s͜ħ] and [z͜ʕ]. Is this a correct analysis?

For /dˤ/, I tend to realize it as implosive [ɗ]. Is this an acceptable allophone?

For /tˤ/, I'm not even sure what I'm realizing it as. Is it a pharyngeal-released affricate?

Did I pronounce them properly?

As the comments say, I pronounce them properly. So I have a remaining question. Did I phonetically analyze them correctly? (Essentially, the questions above.)

  • 1
    Short answer: Yes. – amegnunsen Sep 21 at 9:01
  • @amegnunsen That's a relief. Yet I demand some phonological analysis. – Dannyu NDos Sep 21 at 9:01
  • Phonetic is not the same as phonology. So, I cannot propose you a phonological analysis. – amegnunsen Sep 21 at 9:08
  • @amegnunsen Phonetical analysis is also appreciated. – Dannyu NDos Sep 21 at 9:12
  • 1
    Short answer: close enough. You round [ħ,ʕ]. – user6726 Sep 21 at 14:39
3

"Co-articulation" and/or "double articulation" is something the IPA has a hard time representing. And to a first approximation, [s͜ħ] isn't wrong. ص does indeed involve two constrictions, one up in the front of the mouth where [s] happens, and one back in the pharynx where [ħ] happens.

The reason it's not usually transcribed this way is that not all constrictions are created equal. Think of other doubly-articulated consonants like [kʷ]. The constriction at the velum is complete, blocking off the airflow entirely, but the constriction at the lips is weaker and only serves to "color" the sound. A "true" co-articulated consonant requires two roughly-equivalent constrictions, like [k͡p].

Similarly, the back constriction in ص isn't as complete as in [ħ]: it's more like an approximant than a fricative. So the typical IPA rendition treats it as a "coloring", like the labial articulation in [kʷ], and marks it with a superscript instead of a full letter: [sˤ]. The superscript ˤ is shorthand for "pharyngeal-colored" or "with a weak/secondary pharyngeal articulation", just like ʷʲˠˀ for "labial", "palatal", "velar", and "glottal" respectively.

  • Strange thing is, I've seen IPA that represents coarticulated stops (including nasals), but never coarticulated fricatives or approximants. Is that because they assimilate to "colored" versions of the other? – Dannyu NDos Oct 8 at 21:39
  • @DannyuNDos I imagine it's really hard to get simultaneous friction at two different points. For approximants, they happen: w is labiovelar, ɥ is labiopalatal. The common ones just get symbols of their own. – Draconis Oct 8 at 22:03
1

For the pharyngealized fricatives /sˤ/ and /zˤ/, I understand them as coarticulated [s͜ħ] and [z͜ʕ]. Is this a correct analysis?

No.

For /dˤ/, I tend to realize it as implosive [ɗ]. Is this an acceptable allophone?

No.

For /tˤ/, I'm not even sure what I'm realizing it as. Is it a pharyngeal-released affricate?

No.

The pharyngealized consonants in Arabic are produced by spreading and flattening the back of the tongue. There is no co-articulation involved.

This book is old but still very good: https://archive.org/details/ThePhoneticsOfArabic-W.H.T.Gairdner/page/n2

  • There is a double articulation, two places of articulation (back and front). – amegnunsen Oct 8 at 13:36
  • @amegnunsen. That is correct. But to analyse ص as "coarticulated [s͜ħ] " is dead wrong. – fdb Oct 8 at 13:43
  • If [ɗ] isn't an acceptable allophone, does that mean my ض doesn't sound correctly? – Dannyu NDos Oct 8 at 16:22
  • Your ض is not bad. Your ط sounds like [tw], That is wrong. – fdb Oct 8 at 18:43
  • My advice is to start with the pharyngealised l in الله. That will give you the right tongue position. @DannyuNDos – fdb Oct 8 at 18:46

Your Answer

By clicking “Post Your Answer”, you agree to our terms of service, privacy policy and cookie policy

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged or ask your own question.