Screenshot from a book that confuses me. Why fatha is between ta and alif?
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You're right that a medial alif with no diacritics unambiguously means ā. However, some books like to use harakat "fully"—that is, putting a vowel marker or sukun on every single consonant—and in this tradition, the long vowels ā ī ū are written fathah-alif, kasrah-ya', dammah-waw.
Is it strictly necessary? Not at all; you could get rid of all sukun and all harakat before long vowels without introducing any ambiguity. But if you ask most Arabic-speakers, harakat in general aren't strictly necessary, and people get by just fine without them. They're mostly used in religious texts and texts for language-learners, and in those contexts, the additional clarity is considered to be worth the extra ink.
Traditional Arabic grammar analyses the phoneme /a:/ as the ḥarika “fatḥ” followed by ʼalif sākina. This is fully reflected by the vocalised spelling.
If you omit sukun and harakat, you cannot correctly read رأس or تأشيرة. Of course, native speakers don't need that help.