Once I've spoke with a friend of mine and I've asked him why in the french language there are so many discrepancies (or incongruities, inconformities...) between the written and the spoken words and he has answered me that the french language is a "phonetic language". That's why in the dictionary as an addition to the corresponding french (or english) word there is the so called "transcription" - another writing system (a kind of universal writing system) to define how the written word shall be pronounced. For instance "cat [kæt]" or "omelette [ɔmlɛt]". And in the german language there are less grammatical "incongruities" between reading and writing. I'm not asking "why" because obviously the usage of a foreign alphabet that has been adapted to the language (latin -> french, english, german) or the change of the language during the centuries are only some of the reasons. But I have the folowing question:
Is there a classification of the degree of the "incongruity" of the different languages and is there some linguistic term (scientific name) for this "incongruity"?