So I am toying with language and understand how to treat basic verbs and nouns and adjectives. But I am stuck on modal verbs like "I should have gone home". I would like to know basically a cheat sheet of their patterns across languages. So I can see what's possible in terms of how it's represented.
For example, "should" in Chinese is 应该 (yīnggāi), and you have an example like:
在 中国， 你 应该 喝 白酒。
Zài Zhōngguó, nǐ yīnggāi hē báijiǔ.
In China, you should drink baijiu.
At first glance, without mastering the basics of Chinese yet, it appears this is the exact same sequence as English.
Googling for other languages like Japanese leave me confused. (I've spent quite a bit of time introducing myself just to Chinese, so I have a relative advantage there. But it takes a while to figure out where things are in each language).
I'd like to know what the range of patterns are for treating an example like "I should have gone home" (3 verbs with modal) in various exemplar languages. What is the range of ways languages implement this? Basically the linguistic gloss for a few different patterns to demonstrate the range.
- Are there any languages that can't express this?
- Are there any languages that use affixes of some sort to express it?
- Do any languages require more than one word to express it?
- Do any languages make it something other than a modal verb? (Like maybe it's a particle or an adverb or something).
- Do any languages put the modal verb in a different place in the sentence? Does it cover the full spectrum of possibilities when you look across languages? (i.e., some have it before the main verb, some have it after, some have it next to the main verb, some have it far away, etc.)