Caleb Everett has a series of studies on these, most notably the relationship between humidity and tone. However, these have mostly not been widely accepted by linguists; the commentary to the last article contains objections to the authors' arguments.
Everett, Caleb. 2013. Evidence for direct geographic influences on linguistic sounds: The case of ejectives. PloS one 8(6).
Everett, Caleb, Damián E. Blasi & Seán G. Roberts. 2015. Climate, vocal folds, and tonal languages: Connecting the physiological and geographic dots. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 112(5). 1322–1327.
Everett, Caleb, Damián E. Blasi & Seán G. Roberts. 2016. Language evolution and climate: the case of desiccation and tone. Journal of Language Evolution 1(1). 33–46.